Unlike conventional wines, natural wines are made (90% of the process!) in the vineyard. There is no correction of errors! There are no artificial sprays, pesticides or other chemicals involved. Only fully ecological, natural substances are used to grow the grapevines, combined with the winemakers’ local expertise.
Growing grapevines for natural wines is not intense, the grapevines are not watered and the cultivated areas are relatively small. The yield is much smaller compared to conventional winemaking.
With natural wines, fermentation is spontaneous. Yeasts arise from the grape itself. For this reason, it is important not to ruin the yeasts with invasive methods. Every single grape must be healthy and whole, otherwise an entire vintage can be ruined.
Most wines are macerated. Maceration is a process in which the skins of compressed grapes are left in the must, as the skins hold natural preservatives (acids, tannins, etc.). Wines may also be oxidized, which further protects the wine. There is little to no sulfur in natural wines!
It is up to the winemaker, based on the type of grape, to decide how long the wine is “preserved” in barrels or amphorae. The dark color in the bottle protects the wine from sunlight, and it’s best to keep the wine at constant moderate temperature.